Great Lakes

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This article can be concerning the Fantastic Lakes associated with North America. Regarding the African Fantastic Lakes, observe African great Lakes. Pertaining To the region, notice great Lakes region. Pertaining To additional uses of this term, observe Excellent Lakes (disambiguation).

Satellite image in the great Lakes, April 24, 2000

Terra MODIS image of the Excellent Lakes, January 27, 2005, showing ice start to construct up round the shores of each with the lakes, along with snow around the ground.

Location throughout North America

The Fantastic Lakes (also referred for you to as Laurentian Fantastic Lakes,[1] or perhaps the Fantastic Lakes involving North America) are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes positioned primarily within the upper midwest region regarding North America, on the Canada-United States border, which usually connect towards the Atlantic Ocean by means of the particular Saint Lawrence River. Consisting associated with Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron (or Michigan-Huron), Erie, as well as Ontario, they form the largest team of freshwater lakes in Earth, containing 21% of the world’s surface water by simply volume.[2][3][4] the total surface is 94,250 square miles (244,106 km2), as well as the total volume (measured in the lower drinking water datum) will be 5,439 cubic miles (22,671 km3).[5] Thanks to their sea-like characteristics (rolling waves, sustained winds, strong currents, great depths, and also distant horizons) the actual five great Lakes get additionally extended been referred to as inland seas.[6] Lake Superior is actually the next largest lake within the world by area, as well as Lake Michigan may become the largest lake that’s totally inside 1 country.[7][8][9][10] The Particular southern 1 / two of the actual great Lakes is bordered from the Excellent Lakes Megalopolis.[11]

The Excellent Lakes began for you to form following the past glacial time period around 14,000 a prolonged time ago, as retreating ice sheets carved basins in in order to the land and consequently they became filled with meltwater.[12] The Actual lakes have been a new main highway regarding transportation, migration as well as trade, and consequently they tend to be home to a large quantity of aquatic species. Several invasive species have been released credited to trade, plus some threaten your region’s biodiversity.


1 Geography

1.1 Bathymetry

1.2 primary connecting waterways

1.3 Lake Michigan-Huron

1.4 Some Other significant bodies associated with water

1.5 Islands

1.6 Delivery link towards the ocean

1.7 Drinking Water levels

2 Title origins

3 Statistics

4 Geology

5 Climate

5.1 Lake effect

6 Ecology

6.1 Fauna

6.2 Flora

6.3 Pollution

7 History

8 Economy

8.1 Shipping

8.2 Drinking water along with Compact

8.3 Recreation

8.4 Excellent Lakes passenger steamers

8.5 Shipwrecks

9 Legislation

9.1 Coast Guard live fire exercises

10 see also

11 References

12 Further reading

13 External links


A map in the Fantastic Lakes Basin showing your 5 sub-basins within. Left to correct that they are: Superior (salmon); Michigan (orchid); Huron (amaranth pink); Erie (light orange); Ontario (pale orange).

Though your five lakes reside throughout separate basins, they will form a single, naturally interconnected entire body of refreshing water, inside the actual Excellent Lakes Basin. the lakes form a sequence connecting the actual east-central interior involving north America for the Atlantic Ocean. from the interior to the outlet at the Saint Lawrence River, water flows coming from Superior to Huron and also Michigan, southward to Erie, last however, not least northward to Lake Ontario. The Particular lakes drain a big watershed by way of many rivers, and as a result are studded along with approximately 35,000 islands.[13] Generally there will also be several thousand smaller sized lakes, often known as “inland lakes,” inside your basin.[14] the area of the 5 main lakes combined will be roughly equal towards the sized your United Kingdom, even although the floor with the entire basin (the lakes and additionally the land they drain) will be in regards for you to the sized the particular UK and France combined.[15] Lake Michigan is actually the just real among the particular Excellent Lakes that’s situated entirely inside your United States; others form the h2o boundary between the Usa and Canada. The Actual lakes are divided among the jurisdictions of the Canadian province involving Ontario and the U.S. states regarding Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, as well as New York. Each Ontario along with Michigan contain within their boundaries portions associated with 4 of the lakes: Ontario will not border Lake Michigan, and Michigan does not border Lake Ontario. The Huge Apple and also Wisconsin’s jurisdictions extend into a couple of lakes, and in addition the remaining states in to one of the actual lakes.


Lake Erie

Lake Huron

Lake Michigan

Lake Ontario

Lake Superior

Surface area[5]

9,910 sq mi (25,700 km2)

23,000 sq mi (60,000 km2)

22,300 sq mi (58,000 km2)

7,340 sq mi (19,000 km2)

31,700 sq mi (82,000 km2)

Water volume[5]

116 cu mi (480 km3)

850 cu mi (3,500 km3)

1,180 cu mi (4,900 km3)

393 cu mi (1,640 km3)

2,900 cu mi (12,000 km3)


571 ft (174 m)

577 ft (176 m)

577 ft (176 m)

246 ft (75 m)

600.0 ft (182.9 m)

Average depth[15]

62 ft (19 m)

195 ft (59 m)

279 ft (85 m)

283 ft (86 m)

483 ft (147 m)

Maximum depth[17]

210 ft (64 m)

748 ft (228 m)

925 ft (282 m)

804 ft (245 m)

1,333 ft (406 m)

Major settlements[18]

Buffalo, NY

Erie, PA

Cleveland, OH

Lorain, OH

Toledo, OH


Detroit, MI

Windsor, ON

Alpena, MI

Bay City, MI

Owen Sound, ON

Port Huron, MI

Sarnia, ON

Chicago, IL

Gary, IN

Green Bay, WI

Sheboygan, WI

Milwaukee, WI

Kenosha, WI

Racine, WI

Muskegon, MI

Traverse City, MI

Hamilton, ON

Kingston, ON

Mississauga, ON

Oshawa, ON

Rochester, NY

Toronto, ON

Duluth, MN

Marquette, MI

Sault Ste. Marie, MI

Sault Ste. Marie, ON

Superior, WI

Thunder Bay, ON

Relative elevations, typical depths, maximum depths, and also volumes in the Excellent Lakes.


The area of each rectangle can be proportionate for the volume of each lake. Almost All measurements with low Drinking Water Datum.



System profile with the Fantastic Lakes.

Great Lakes bathymetry. [19][20][21][22][23][24]

As the particular surfaces associated with Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, and also Erie tend to be just about all approximately exactly the actual same elevation above sea level, whilst Lake Ontario can be significantly lower, along with because the Niagara Escarpment precludes just about all organic navigation, the actual 4 upper lakes are commonly called the “upper excellent lakes”. This specific designation, however, is not universal. Individuals living on the shore regarding Lake Superior frequently refer to just about all as well as any one other lakes as “the lower lakes”, because they will are farther south. Sailors of bulk freighters transferring cargoes via Lake Superior along with northern Lake Michigan as well as Lake Huron for you to ports upon Lake Erie or perhaps Ontario commonly refer for the latter since the lower lakes and Lakes Michigan, Huron, along with Superior because the upper lakes. This corresponds for you to thinking of Lakes Erie along with Ontario as “down south” as well as the others as “up north”. Vessels sailing north upon Lake Michigan are considered “upbound” despite the actual fact that they are sailing towards its effluent current.[25]

Primary connecting waterways

Toronto about Lake Ontario is in the eastern portion involving the great Lakes Megalopolis

Chicago on Lake Michigan is actually in the western section of the actual lakes megalopolis, as well as the website of the waterway linking your lakes for the Mississippi River valley

Detroit about the Detroit River links the region’s central metropolitan areas.

The Chicago River along with Calumet River techniques connect the actual Fantastic Lakes Basin towards the Mississippi River System by means of man-made alterations and canals.

The St. Marys River, including the actual Soo Locks, connects Lake Superior in order to Lake Huron.

The Straits associated with Mackinac connect Lake Michigan for you to Lake Huron (which are generally hydrologically one).

The St. Clair River connects Lake Huron to Lake St. Clair.

The Detroit River connects Lake St. Clair to Lake Erie.

The Niagara River, including Niagara Falls, connects Lake Erie to end up being able to Lake Ontario.

The Welland Canal, bypassing the Falls, connects Lake Erie to Lake Ontario.

The Saint Lawrence River connects Lake Ontario towards the Gulf of St. Lawrence, which in turn connects to the Atlantic Ocean.

Lake Michigan-Huron

Main article: Lake Michigan-Huron

Lakes Huron as well as Michigan are sometimes considered a single lake, referred in order to as Lake Michigan-Huron, since these people are certainly one hydrological body regarding water connected through the Straits of Mackinac.[26] Your straits are 5 miles (8 km) wide[15] and 120 feet (37 m) deep; the particular water ranges – at present from 577 feet (176 m) – rise and fall together,[27] and furthermore the flow in between Michigan and also Huron frequently reverses direction.

Other significant bodies involving water

Lake Nipigon, attached to Lake Superior from the Nipigon River, is surrounded by sill-like formations involving mafic and ultramafic igneous rock hundreds of meters high. The Actual lake lies within the Nipigon Embayment, a failed arm of the triple junction (centered beneath Lake Superior) in the Midcontinent Rift System event, estimated at 1,109 million many years ago.

Green Bay is surely an arm involving Lake Michigan, positioned over the south coast with the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and the east coast of Wisconsin. That will be separated from your remaining lake by the Door Peninsula within Wisconsin, the particular Garden Peninsula inside Michigan, as well as the chain involving islands between them, most associated with which are formed from the Niagara Escarpment.

Lake Winnebago, linked to Green Bay from the Fox River, can serve as section of the particular Fox-Wisconsin Waterway and is portion of your larger system associated with lakes within Wisconsin known as the Winnebago Pool.

Grand Traverse Bay is surely an arm regarding Lake Michigan found upon Michigan’s west coast, getting one of the particular largest all-natural harbours inside the Excellent Lakes. Your bay features 1 big peninsula[28] then one significant island known as power Island. It’s namesake is actually derived via when Jacques Marquette intersected the particular bay coming from Norwood to Northport calling it La Grande Traversee.[29]

Georgian Bay is an arm involving Lake Huron, extending northeast from the lake totally inside Ontario. the bay, along using its narrow westerly extensions of the North Channel as well as Mississagi Strait, can be separated from the rest associated with the lake by the Bruce Peninsula, Manitoulin Island, as well as Cockburn Island, most involving that possess been additionally formed from the Niagara Escarpment.

Lake Nipissing, connected to Georgian Bay by the French River, contains a pair of volcanic pipes, which in turn would always be the Manitou Islands along with Callander Bay.[30] These kind of pipes had been formed by way of a violent, supersonic eruption of deep-origin. the lake lies in the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben, the Mesozoic rift valley which formed 175 million many years ago.

Lake Simcoe, attached to Georgian Bay from the Severn River, may serve as section of the Trent-Severn Waterway, any canal route traversing Southern Ontario among Lakes Ontario and Huron.

Lake St. Clair, connected with Lake Huron (to its north) through the St. Clair River as well as using Lake Erie (to its south) through the Detroit River, will be notable for your fact that Canadian territory alongside its southern shore (the city of Windsor as well as Essex County) lies south with the adjacent united States territory (the city of Detroit). Although it’s 17 occasions smaller sized in area as compared to Lake Ontario and only rarely included inside the listings of the Fantastic Lakes,[31][32] proposals for its official recognition as a Excellent Lake are generally occasionally made, which will affect its inclusion throughout scientific analysis projects, etc., designated as associated for you to “The Fantastic Lakes”.[33]


Dispersed throughout your Excellent Lakes tend to be approximately 35,000 islands.[13] the largest included throughout this will be Manitoulin Island throughout Lake Huron, your largest island in any inland body of drinking water inside the world.[34] the second-largest island is actually Isle Royale in Lake Superior.[35] Each of these islands are generally huge adequate in order to include multiple lakes themselves — regarding instance, Manitoulin Island’s Lake Manitou is the world’s largest lake found on a freshwater island.[36]

Shipping connection for the ocean

The Saint Lawrence Seaway and also Fantastic Lakes Waterway make the Excellent Lakes available to become able to ocean-going vessels.[37] However, shifts in transport to become able to wider ocean-going container ships — which do not necessarily match through the actual locks about these routes — have restricted container transport about the lakes. The Majority Of Fantastic Lakes trade is associated with bulk material, and bulk freighters of Seawaymax-size or much less could transfer all through the complete lakes and out to the Atlantic.[38] Larger ships are usually limited to operating inside the lakes themselves. Simply barges may access the actual Illinois Waterway system providing access for the Gulf involving Mexico via the Mississippi River. Despite their vast size, large sections of the Excellent Lakes freeze over in winter, interrupting nearly all shipping through January to March. some icebreakers ply the particular lakes, maintaining the particular transport lanes open via additional durations involving ice on the lakes.

The Fantastic Lakes may additionally be connected by simply canal towards the Gulf of Mexico by simply method of the particular Illinois River (from the Chicago River) and in addition the Mississippi River. An alternate track is through the Illinois River (from Chicago), for the Mississippi, up your Ohio, and then through the particular Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway (combination of the series of rivers and lakes and canals), for you to Mobile Bay as well as the Gulf. Commercial tug-and-barge targeted traffic upon these waterways is heavy.[39]

Pleasure boats can easily also type in as well as exit the Excellent Lakes through way of the Erie Canal and Hudson River inside New York. The Actual Erie Canal connects for the Fantastic Lakes at the east finish involving Lake Erie (at Buffalo, New York) at the particular south side regarding Lake Ontario (at Oswego, New York).

Water levels

The lakes contained throughout 2009 84% of the surface freshwater of North America;[40] if the drinking water were evenly distributed over the whole continent’s land area, it could reach any depth associated with 1.5 meters (5 feet).[15] The Actual supply of drinking water amounts in the lakes is actually tied for you to what was left by simply melting glaciers when the lakes took his or her existing form. Annually, just concerning 1% can be “new” drinking water originating via rivers, precipitation, and groundwater springs in which drain in to be able to the lakes. Historically, evaporation has been well-balanced through drainage, generating the amount of your lakes constant.[15] while the actual lake levels have been preserved, intensive human population growth simply began inside the region inside the last century and also carries on today.[15] at least two human drinking water use actions have been identified as having the potential to affect your lakes’ levels: diversion (the transfer associated with drinking water to other watersheds) along with consumption (substantially completed today from the use involving lake drinking water to energy and cool electric generation plants, resulting in evaporation).[41]

The water amount of Lake Michigan-Huron had remained relatively constant more than the particular 20th century,[42] however provides nevertheless dropped greater than six feet from your record high in 1986 to the low regarding 2013.[43] 1 newspaper reported that the long-term typical degree has gone down with regards to twenty inches since associated with dredging along with subsequent erosion inside the St. Clair River. Lake Michigan-Huron hit all-time record ‘abnormal’ amounts in 2013; according to the US Army Corps of Engineers, the prior record low have been occur 1964.[43] Through April 2015 the actual h2o level had recovered to be able to 7 inches (17.5 cm) more than the particular “long term month-to-month average”.[44]

Name origins

Lake Erie

From the particular Erie tribe, the shortened form of the Iroquoian phrase erielhonan (long tail).[45]

Lake Huron

Named by French explorers for that inhabitants in the area, the actual Wyandot or perhaps “Hurons”.[46]

Lake Michigan

From the actual Ojibwa word mishigami (great h2o or even big lake).[47]

Lake Ontario

From the particular Wyandot (Huron) phrase ontarío (lake associated with shining waters).[48]

Lake Superior

English translation of the French term lac supérieur (upper lake), referring to be able to its place north involving Lake Huron. Your indigenous Ojibwe think of it as gichi gumi (from Ojibwe gichi big, large, great; gumi water, lake, sea. Popularized in French-influenced transliteration as Gitchigumi as with Gordon Lightfoot’s 1976 story song, The Particular Wreck in the Edmund Fitzgerald, or Gitchee Gumee such as Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s 1855 epic poem, The Particular Song regarding Hiawatha).[17]


The great Lakes contained 21% of the world’s surface fresh water round the 12 months 2000: 5,472 cubic miles (22,810 km3), or perhaps 6.0×1015 U.S. gallons (2.3×1016 liters). This specific is sufficient water to cover the actual 48 contiguous U.S. states into a uniform depth regarding 9.5 feet (2.9 m). Even though the lakes contain a sizable percentage with the world’s refreshing water, your great Lakes provide only a little portion regarding U.S. drinking drinking water on a national basis.[49]

The total surface area of the lakes is approximately 94,250 square miles (244,100 km2)–nearly the same dimension because the United Kingdom, along with larger compared to U.S. states of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, and New Hampshire combined.[50]

The great Lakes coast measures approximately 10,500 miles (16,900 km);[15] however, the particular size of your coastline is impossible to become able to measure exactly and is not a well-defined measure (see Coastline paradox). of the total 10,500 miles (16,900 km) regarding shoreline, Canada borders approximately 5,200 miles (8,400 km), as the remaining 5,300 miles (8,500 km) are generally bordered through the United States. Michigan gets the longest shoreline of the United States, bordering roughly 3,288 miles (5,292 km) associated with shoreline, followed by Wisconsin (820 miles (1,320 km)), new York (473 miles (761 km)), along with Ohio (312 miles (502 km)).[51] Traversing the shoreline associated with all the lakes would include a new distance roughly equal to travelling half-way about the entire world in the equator.[15]


A diagram with the formation with the Fantastic Lakes

It has been estimated that the foundational geology in which come up with conditions shaping the particular existing day upper Excellent Lakes ended up being laid via 1.1 to always be able to 1.2 billion years ago,[15][52] when a pair of formerly fused tectonic plates split apart as well as came up with Midcontinent Rift, which entered the great Lakes Tectonic Zone. A New valley ended up being formed providing a new basin which ultimately became contemporary Lake Superior. When any second fault line, the Saint Lawrence rift, formed approximately 570 million years ago,[15] the particular grounds for Lakes Ontario along with Erie had been created, together with an amount end up being the Saint Lawrence River.

The great Lakes are generally estimated in order to are already formed following the final glacial period involving time (the Wisconsin glaciation ended 10,000 to always be able to 12,000 a extended time ago), when the Laurentide ice sheet receded.[12] the retreat of the ice sheet left out a large quantity involving meltwater (see Lake Algonquin along with Lake Chicago) in which filled up your basins the glaciers had carved, thus creating the Excellent Lakes as we realize these today.[53] Since in the uneven nature regarding glacier erosion, a number of higher hills became Excellent Lakes islands. Your Niagara Escarpment follows the actual contour in the Fantastic Lakes between Ny and Wisconsin.

Land beneath the particular glaciers “rebounded” as it had been uncovered.[54] Since your glaciers covered several places over others, this glacial rebound occurred from various rates.


The great Lakes use a humid continental climate, Köppen climate classification Dfa (in southern areas) and Dfb (in northern parts)[55] using various influences coming from air masses using their company regions including dry, cold Arctic systems, mild Pacific air masses from the West, and also warm, wet tropical techniques from the south and the Gulf of Mexico.[56] the lakes on their own own additionally possess a moderating effect about the climate; they can additionally increase precipitation totals and produce lake effect snowfall.[55]

Lake effect

Main article: Lake-effect snow

The the majority of well-known winter impact with the great Lakes on regional weather may end up being the lake impact in snowfall, which can easily be sometimes extremely localized. Perhaps late in winter, the particular lakes frequently don’t possess any icepack within the middle. The Actual prevailing winds from your west pick up air and also moisture from your lake surface, that is slightly warmer in relation for the cold surface winds above. Since the slightly warmer, moist air passes over the particular colder territory surface, the moisture usually produces concentrated, heavy snowfall that sets up inside bands as well as “streamers”. This can be comparable to the impact of warmer air dropping snow since it passes over mountain ranges. In Your course Of freezing weather rich in winds, the particular “snow belts” obtain regular snow fall from this localized weather pattern, particularly over the eastern shores with the lakes. Snow belts are generally seen in Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, as well as New York, United States; along with Ontario, Canada.

The lakes also moderate seasonal temperatures in order to a few degree, however, not with as huge an influence as do significant oceans; that they absorb heat and also cool the environment throughout summer, then slowly radiate in which heat inside autumn. These People protect against frost in the actual course of transitional weather, and keep the summer-time temperatures cooler than further inland. This specific effect can always be very localized as well as overridden by simply offshore wind patterns. This particular temperature buffering creates areas known as “fruit belts”, exactly where fruit may be produced that is typically grown a lot farther south. With Regard To instance, Western Michigan provides apple as well as cherry orchards, along with vineyards cultivated adjacent to the lake shore as way north as the Grand Traverse Bay along with Nottawasaga Bay throughout central Ontario. the eastern shore involving Lake Michigan and also the southern shore regarding Lake Erie have many successful wineries thanks for the moderating effect, as does your Niagara Peninsula in between Lake Erie as well as Lake Ontario. The similar phenomenon permits wineries to flourish inside the Finger Lakes region associated with New York, too as with Prince Edward County, Ontario about Lake Ontario’s northeast shore. related towards the lake impact may end up being the normal occurrence of fog more than medium-sized areas, specially over the shorelines with the lakes. This is most noticeable together Lake Superior’s shores.

The Fantastic Lakes happen to be able to be observed to assist intensify storms, such as Hurricane Hazel throughout 1954, and the 2011 Goderich, Ontario tornado, which in turn moved onshore like a tornadic waterspout. Within 1996 a rare tropical or subtropical storm has been observed forming throughout Lake Huron, dubbed the particular 1996 Lake Huron cyclone. Rather large severe thunderstorms covering wide areas are very recognized inside the Fantastic Lakes in the actual program of mid-summer; these Mesoscale convective complexs or even MCCs[57] could cause injury to wide swaths associated with forest along with shatter glass within metropolis buildings. These types of storms mainly occur throughout the night, and additionally the methods sometimes possess little embedded tornadoes, nevertheless more frequently straight-line winds accompanied simply by intense lightning.


Generalized schematic of Excellent Lakes waterline ecosystem

Historically, the actual Fantastic Lakes, additionally for their lake ecology, were surrounded by a variety of forest ecoregions (except in a relatively tiny area involving southeast Lake Michigan exactly where savanna or perhaps prairie sometimes intruded). Logging, urbanization, along with agriculture makes use of get changed in which relationship. in the actual early 21st century, Lake Superior’s shores are 91% forested, Lake Huron 68%, Lake Ontario 49%, Lake Michigan 41%, along with Lake Erie, exactly where logging and also urbanization continues to be able to be nearly all extensive, 21%. A Range Of of these forests are usually second or perhaps third growth (i.e. they will are already logged before, changing their own composition). In least 13 wildlife species are usually documented as turning out in order to be extinct since your arrival associated with Europeans, and many a lot more are threatened or even endangered.[15] Meanwhile, exotic along with invasive species have additionally been introduced.


See also: Category: Fauna with the Fantastic Lakes region, and also Category: Fish in the great Lakes.

Lake sturgeon, the actual largest native fish in the Fantastic Lakes as well as the subject of extensive commercial fishing within the 19th as well as 20th centuries can be outlined as getting a threatened species[58]

The organisms living on the bottom involving shallow waters are similar individuals present in smaller sized lakes. The Actual deep waters, however, include organisms found just throughout deep, cold lakes in the northern latitudes. These are the delicate opossum shrimp, the particular deepwater scud (a crustacean), two sorts of copepods, and in addition the deepwater sculpin (a spiny, large-headed fish).[59]

The Fantastic Lakes are generally a significant source of fishing. Early European settlers had been astounded by simply both the particular assortment and amount associated with fish; there get been 150 different species in the great Lakes.[15] throughout history, fish populations had been the early indicator regarding the wellness of the particular Lakes, and possess remained one of the accurate secret indicators even inside the existing era of sophisticated analyses and also measuring instruments. According for the bi-national (U.S. and Canadian) resource book, the Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and resource Book: “The largest Fantastic Lakes fish harvests had been recorded within 1889 and 1899 in several 67,000 tonnes (66,000 long tons; 74,000 short tons) [147 million pounds].”[60]

By 1801, the particular The Huge Apple Legislature found it essential to pass through laws curtailing obstructions for the natural migrations involving Atlantic salmon coming from Lake Erie within their spawning channels. Throughout your early 19th century, the federal government involving Upper Canada located it required to introduce comparable legislation prohibiting the employment involving weirs and also nets in the mouths regarding Lake Ontario’s tributaries. Various Other protective legislation ended up being passed, as well, however enforcement remained difficult.[61]

On both factors in the Canada-United States border, the particular proliferation of dams as well as impoundments have multiplied, necessitating more regulatory efforts. Concerns from the mid-19th century included obstructions inside the rivers which usually prevented salmon and also lake sturgeon via reaching their particular spawning grounds. The Actual Wisconsin Fisheries Commission noted a new reduction associated with roughly 25% generally fish harvests by 1875. Your states have removed dams via rivers exactly where necessary.[62]

Overfishing may be cited like a achievable purpose for a reduction in population associated with numerous whitefish, crucial due to become able to their culinary desirability and, hence, economic consequence. Moreover, between 1879 as well as 1899, reported whitefish harvests declined through several 24.3 million pounds (11 million kg) to be able to approximately 9 million lbs (4 million kg).[63] Simply By 1900, commercial fishermen about Lake Michigan were hauling inside an typical involving 41 million lbs of fish annually.[64] Through 1938, Wisconsin’s commercial fishing operations were motorized and mechanized. generating jobs with regard to greater than 2,000 workers, along with hauling 14 million pounds per year.[64] The Actual population involving giant freshwater mussels ended up being eliminated because the mussels were harvested for use as buttons by early Excellent Lakes entrepreneurs.[63] Since 2000, the actual invasive quagga mussel offers smothered the bottom involving Lake Michigan virtually via shore to shore, in add-on for you to their numbers are estimated in 900 trillion.[64]

The influx associated with parasitic lamprey populations following the progression of the Erie Canal as well as the a lot later Welland Canal led for the a couple of federal governments with the US along with Canada operating in joint proposals to control it. By Simply the mid-1950s, the lake trout populations regarding Lakes Michigan and also Huron were reduced, with all the lamprey deemed largely to blame. This led to the launch in the bi-national Excellent Lakes Fishery Commission.

Cliffs from Palisade Head on Lake Superior throughout Minnesota close to Silver Bay.

The great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and also Useful Resource E-book (1972) noted: “Only pockets remain of the when significant commercial fishery.”[60] But, h2o quality improvements realized through the 1970s and 1980s, combined using successful salmonid stocking programs, get enabled the development of the large recreational fishery.[65] The Actual last commercial fisherman left Milwaukee in 2011 simply because regarding overfishing and anthropogenic changes for the biosphere.[64]

Since the actual 1800s an estimated 160 new species get found their way to the Fantastic Lakes ecosystem; many get turn out in order to be invasive; the particular overseas ship ballast along with ship hull parasitism tend to be causing severe economic and also ecological impacts.[66][67] According towards the Inland Seas Education And Learning Association, on average a new species enters the actual Fantastic Lakes every eight months.[67]

A zebra mussel-encrusted vector-averaging existing meter through Lake Michigan.

Introductions into the Excellent Lakes range coming from the zebra mussel, which has been first discovered throughout 1988,[68] and also quagga mussel throughout 1989. The Actual mollusks are generally effective filter feeders, fighting together with native mussels and also reducing available food and spawning grounds for fish. Throughout addition, the actual mussels might be considered a nuisance to always be able to industries simply by clogging pipes. The Actual U.S. Fish and Wildlife service estimates in which the economical impact with the zebra mussel could possibly be concerning $5 billion over the particular next decade.[69]

The alewife first entered the system west of Lake Ontario by means of 19th-century canals. Simply By the actual 1960s, the tiny silver fish had be a familiar nuisance to beach goers across Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie. Periodic mass dieoffs result in huge quantities of the fish washing up upon shore; estimates through different governments possess positioned the percentage involving Lake Michigan’s biomass, that had been constructed involving alewives within the early 1960s, as higher as 90%. in the particular late 1960s, the different state as well as federal governments began stocking several species involving salmonids, such as your native lake trout also as non-native chinook and coho salmon; from the 1980s, alewife populations had dropped drastically.[70] The Particular ruffe, the small percid fish through Eurasia, became one in the most abundant fish species inside Lake Superior’s Saint Louis River within five many years of its detection inside 1986. Its range, that offers expanded to be able to Lake Huron, poses an important threat towards the lower lake fishery.[71] 5 many years right after very first becoming observed within the St. Clair River, the actual round goby are now able to be located in all in the Fantastic Lakes. The Actual goby will be considered undesirable with regard to several reasons: it preys upon bottom-feeding fish, overruns optimal habitat, spawns multiple occasions a new season, and may survive poor water quality conditions.[72]

Several species of exotic water fleas possess accidentally been released to the Fantastic Lakes, such because the spiny waterflea, Bythotrephes longimanus, and also the fishhook waterflea, Cercopagis pengoi, potentially having an effect around the zooplankton population. Numerous species associated with crayfish have got also been introduced in which might cope with native crayfish populations. A Lot More not too long ago an electric fence continues for you to be setup across the Chicago Sanitary and also Ship Canal in order to help keep several species associated with invasive Asian carp out with the area. These kind of fast-growing planktivorous fish possess heavily colonized the actual Mississippi along with Illinois river systems.[73] Your sea lamprey, which in turn has been particularly detrimental towards the native lake trout population, is another example of the marine invasive species inside the great Lakes.[74] Invasive species, especially zebra as well as quagga mussels, might end up being no less than partially responsible for the collapse in the deepwater demersal fish neighborhood inside Lake Huron,[75] also as drastic unprecedented changes inside the zooplankton community in the lake.[76]


See also: Flora of the great Lakes region, and Index: Trees with the Excellent Lakes region.

Native habitats along with ecoregions in the Excellent Lakes region include:

Eastern forest-boreal transition

Eastern Fantastic Lakes lowland forests

Southern Excellent Lakes forests

Central forest-grasslands transition

Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition

Western great Lakes forests

Central Canadian Shield forests

Laurentian Mixed Forest Province

Beech-maple forest

Habitats of the Indiana Dunes

Plant lists include:

List regarding Michigan flowers

List regarding Minnesota wild flowers

List involving Minnesota trees


Logging with the extensive forests inside the Excellent Lakes region removed riparian as well as adjacent tree include more than rivers as well as streams, which supply shade, moderating water temperatures throughout fish spawning grounds. Removal associated with trees in addition destabilized the actual soil, together with greater volumes washed directly into stream beds causing siltation involving gravel beds, and a lot more frequent flooding.

Running cut logs down the tributary rivers to the great Lakes additionally dislocated sediments. Throughout 1884, the Ny Fish Commission determined the dumping regarding sawmill waste (chips as well as sawdust) had impacted fish populations.[77]


The very first U.S. Clean H2o Act, passed by means of a Congressional override right after getting vetoed by simply US President Richard Nixon inside 1972, was obviously a key little bit of legislation,[78] along using the bi-national Excellent Lakes Drinking Water Top Quality Agreement signed by Canada and additionally the U.S. a assortment regarding steps taken up process industrial as well as municipal pollution discharges to the system greatly improved water high quality from the 1980s, along with Lake Erie particularly will be significantly cleaner.[79] Discharge regarding toxic substances has been sharply reduced. Federal assuring regulations control substances like PCBs. The initial regarding 43 “Great Lakes Locations involving Concern” being formally “de-listed” due to be able to productive cleanup has been Ontario’s Collingwood Harbour within 1994; Ontario’s Severn sound adopted in 2003.[80]Presque Isle Bay throughout Pennsylvania can be formally listed as with recovery, as is Ontario’s Spanish Harbour. Dozens of some other areas regarding Concern get received partial cleanups such because the Rouge River (Michigan) and Waukegan Harbor (Illinois).[81]

Until 1970, mercury had not been detailed like a harmful chemical, according to the united States Federal Drinking Water quality Administration. Inside the past a decade mercury has become much more apparent inside drinking water tests. Mercury compounds are already found in paper mills for you to avoid slime through forming during their production, and also chemical companies have utilized mercury for you to separate chlorine coming from brine solutions. Research conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency have got demonstrated in which if the mercury is obtainable in experience of many in the bacteria as well as compounds within the clean water, it types the actual compound methyl mercury, that has a much greater effect on human well being when compared with elemental mercury because of a higher propensity regarding absorption. This kind of type of mercury just isn’t detrimental into a majority associated with fish types, however is quite detrimental for you to folks along using other wildlife animals that consume the fish. Mercury continues to become able to be recognized for wellness associated problems like birth defects inside humans and also animals, and the near extinction associated with eagles inside the Fantastic Lakes region.[82]

The quantity of raw sewage dumped to the waters has been the actual primary emphasis associated with both the initial Excellent Lakes water High Quality Agreement as well as federal laws passed inside both countries during the 1970s. Implementation regarding secondary remedy regarding municipal sewage by significant cities greatly reduced your routine discharge associated with untreated sewage during the 1970s and also 1980s.[83] the International Joint Commission in 2009 summarized the particular change: “Since the particular early 1970s, the actual level of therapy to reduce pollution through waste h2o discharges towards the Fantastic Lakes features improved considerably. This kind of can become a result of significant expenditures in order to date upon each infrastructure along with technology, and robust regulatory techniques that have verified in order to be, about the whole, quite effective.”[84] The Actual commission reported that most urban sewage treatment method systems around the U.S. facet in the lakes had implemented secondary treatment, as had just about all on the Canadian side except for five small systems.

However, these remedy system upgrades get not, contrary to end up being able to federal laws inside each countries, but eliminated Mixed sewer Overflow events. This kind of describes when older sewerage systems, which combine storm drinking water together with sewage straight into single sewers heading for the treatment plant, are generally temporarily overwhelmed by hefty rainstorms. Neighborhood sewage treatment method authorities then must launch untreated effluent, a mix involving rainwater and sewage, directly into local drinking water bodies. Although enormous public investments such as the Deep Tunnel tasks in Chicago and also Milwaukee possess greatly reduced the regularity as well as volume of these events, they have not really been eliminated. Your variety of such overflow events within Ontario, for example, is actually flat according to the International Joint Commission.[84] reports about this issue around the U.S. facet highlight five large municipal systems (those involving Detroit, Cleveland, Buffalo, Milwaukee as well as Gary) as getting your largest existing periodic sources of untreated discharges to the Fantastic Lakes.[85]

Phosphate detergents were historically a new significant way in order to obtain nutrient for the Excellent Lakes algae blooms specifically within the warmer along with shallower portions with the system such as Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay, Green Bay, and the southernmost portion involving Lake Michigan. by the particular mid-1980s, nearly all jurisdictions bordering your Fantastic Lakes had managed phosphate detergents,[86] causing sharp reductions within the frequency and extent with the blooms.

In 2013, information of the garbage patch associated with plastic pollution inside the lakes has been released.[87]


A woodcut associated with Le Griffon

Several Native American tribes inhabited the particular region since a minimal of 1000 BC, following your end in the Wisconsin glaciation. The Actual peoples of the great Lakes traded with just about all the Hopewell culture through about 1000 AD, as copper nuggets happen in order to be extracted in the region, as well as fashioned in to ornaments and weapons in the mounds involving Southern Ohio. The Actual brigantine Le Griffon, which usually ended up being commissioned by simply René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, was built with Cayuga Creek, near the southern finish of the Niagara River, along with became the extremely first known sailing ship traveling the particular upper Excellent Lakes upon August 7, 1679.[88]

During settlement, the particular Fantastic Lakes as well as its rivers were the sole practical method of relocating people and freight. Barges through middle The United States were in a new position to attain the Atlantic Ocean from your Excellent Lakes when the Erie Canal opened inside 1825.[89] By Simply 1848, with most the opening with the Illinois as well as Michigan Canal at Chicago, direct access for the Mississippi River ended up being possible from the lakes.[90] with these two canals an all-inland drinking water route had been provided between new York Metropolis and New Orleans.

The main enterprise of numerous in the passenger lines within the 1800s had been transporting immigrants. Many involving the greater cities owe his or her existence for their place about the lakes like a freight destination also as to be a magnet with regard to immigrants. Following railroads and surface roads developed, the actual freight along with passenger companies dwindled and, except regarding ferries plus a few foreign cruise ships, has now vanished. Your immigration routes even now come together with an impact today. Immigrants often formed their particular communities plus some places possess a pronounced ethnicity, such as Dutch, German, Polish, Finnish, and several others. Since many immigrants settled regarding an occasion within New England just before moving westward, many locations on the U.S. facet in the Excellent Lakes furthermore have a New England feel, especially in house styles along with accent.

The Eastland leaving Chicago, ca. 1909

Since general freight these days will be transported simply by railroads as well as trucks, domestic ships mostly move bulk cargoes, such as iron ore, coal along with limestone for the steel industry. Your domestic bulk freight developed since of the neighborhood mines. This has been a lot more economical in order to transport the actual ingredients for steel in order to centralized plants rather than try to make steel about the spot. Grain exports may also be any major cargo on the lakes.

In the actual nineteenth century and also early 20th centuries, iron as well as other ores like copper had been shipped south in (downbound ships), and supplies, food, and coal were shipped north (upbound). Simply Because involving the location associated with the coal fields in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, and additionally the general northeast track of the Appalachian Mountains, railroads by natural means developed delivery routes that went because of north to ports like Erie, Pennsylvania and Ashtabula, Ohio.

Because your lake maritime community largely developed independently, it has a number of distinctive vocabulary. Ships, absolutely no make a difference the size, are identified as boats. When the sailing ships gave way to steamships, they were called steamboats–the identical saying used about the Mississippi. the ships also possess a distinctive design (see Lake freighter). Ships that primarily trade about the lakes are usually called lakers. Foreign boats are referred to become able to as salties. 1 regarding the harder widespread sights on the lakes continues to always be able to be since regarding 1950 your 1,000-by-105-foot (305-by-32-meter), 78,850-long-ton (80,120-metric-ton) self-unloader. This kind of can be a laker with a conveyor belt system that will unload itself simply by swinging the crane more than the side.[91] Today, the particular great Lakes fleet is much smaller within quantities laptop or even computer when has been simply because with the elevated use associated with overland freight, and a few larger ships replacing many tiny ones.

During world War II, the particular risk of submarine attacks against coastal training facilities inspired the actual united States Navy to operate two aircraft carriers on the great Lakes, USS Sable (IX-81) as well as USS Wolverine (IX-64). Each served as training ships to qualify naval aviators within carrier landing along with takeoff.[92]Lake Champlain briefly became the sixth Fantastic Lake with the United States Involving America upon 6 March 1998, when President Clinton signed Senate Bill 927. This specific bill, which in turn reauthorized the actual National Sea Grant Program, contained a new range declaring Lake Champlain being a Fantastic Lake. Certainly Not coincidentally, this status allows neighboring states in order to submit an application for additional federal analysis along with schooling funds allocated to those national resources.[93] Next any little uproar, the actual Senate voted in order to revoke the actual designation in 24 March (although Ny and also Vermont universities would continue to obtain funds to watch and research the actual lake).[94]

In your early many many years of your 21st century, h2o levels in the great Lakes were a new concern.[95] Researchers in the Mowat Centre declared lower levels could cost $19bn by 2050.[96]


Photograph associated with Lakes Ontario, Erie and also Huron in add-on to end up being able to the Finger Lakes involving upstate New York, June 14, 2012, taken aboard your International space Station, with lake names added


The Fantastic Lakes are generally these days employed as a main h2o transport corridor regarding bulk goods. The Really Amazing Lakes Waterway connects every 1 regarding the lakes; the actual smaller Saint Lawrence Seaway connects the particular lakes for the Atlantic oceans. Several lake freighters are too large to help to make use of the Seaway, and just operate around the Waterway and lakes.

In 2002, 162 million net tons of dry bulk cargo were moved about the Lakes. This kind of was, so as associated with volume: iron ore, grain and also potash. Your iron ore and also a lot in the stone as well as coal are utilized inside the steel industry. Right now there can also be a number of shipping and delivery of liquid and containerized cargo but most container ships cannot pass the locks around the Saint Lawrence Seaway since the ships tend to be as well wide. The Particular total amount of shipping and delivery about the lakes continues to be on a downward trend regarding a number of years.

Drinking water along with Compact

Main article: great Lakes Compact

The Excellent Lakes are used to supply drinking h2o to end up being able to tens regarding millions of people in bordering areas. This kind of beneficial source can be collectively administered from the state and provincial governments adjacent for the lakes, who have agreed towards the Excellent Lakes Compact to regulate drinking water provide as well as use.


Tourism and recreation are usually significant industries around the Fantastic Lakes.[97] a few small cruise lines run around the Excellent Lakes including any handful of sailing ships. Sport fishing, commercial fishing, as well as Native American fishing represent the U.S.$4 billion a year industry along with salmon, whitefish, smelt, lake trout, bass and walleye being major catches. Many some other aquatic sports are usually practiced about the lakes such as yachting, sea kayaking, diving, kitesurfing, powerboating, and lake surfing.

The great Lakes Circle Tour can always be a designated scenic street system connecting most of the Excellent Lakes as well as the Saint Lawrence River.[98]

Great Lakes passenger steamers

Main article: great Lakes passenger steamers

From 1844 via 1857, palace steamers carried passengers and cargo round the great Lakes.[99] Throughout the really first 50 % of the 20th century significant luxurious passenger steamers sailed the lakes inside opulence.[100] The Particular Detroit along with Cleveland Navigation company had numerous vessels at the time and hired workers through almost all walks of life to help operate theses vessels.[101] several ferries presently function on the Excellent Lakes to hold passengers to various islands, including Isle Royale, Drummond Island, Pelee Island, Mackinac Island, Beaver Island, Bois Blanc Island (Ontario), Bois Blanc Island (Michigan), Kelleys Island, South Bass Island, North Manitou Island, South Manitou Island, Harsens Island, Manitoulin Island, and the Toronto Islands. As regarding 2007, 4 automobile ferry services cross your Fantastic Lakes, two on Lake Michigan: the steamer from Ludington, Michigan, to end up being able to Manitowoc, Wisconsin, along together with a broadband catamaran coming from Milwaukee to Muskegon, Michigan, one on Lake Erie: a ship coming from Kingsville, Ontario, or Leamington, Ontario, to Pelee Island, Ontario, then on to Sandusky, Ohio, and something on Lake Huron: your M.S. Chi-Cheemaun [102] runs among Tobermory and South Baymouth, Manitoulin Island, managed from the Owen Audio Transportation Company. An international ferry across Lake Ontario Rochester, New York, to always be able to Toronto ran in your course of 2004 and 2005, but is actually will zero longer throughout operation.


The significant size the actual Fantastic Lakes boosts the chance of water travel; storms and reefs are normal threats. The Particular lakes are prone to sudden and severe storms, in particular in the autumn, via late October until early December. Hundreds associated with ships have got satisfied their own end on the lakes. the greatest concentration associated with shipwrecks lies near Thunder Bay (Michigan), beneath Lake Huron, close to be able to the point exactly where eastbound as well as westbound delivery lanes converge.

The Lake Superior shipwreck coast coming from Grand Marais, Michigan, to always be able to Whitefish Point became recognized because the “Graveyard in the Fantastic Lakes”. Much More vessels happen in order to be lost in the Whitefish Point region when compared with every other a component of Lake Superior.[103] Your Whitefish Point Underwater Preserve serves as an underwater museum in order to protect the numerous shipwrecks on this area.

The 1st ship for you to sink within Lake Michigan was Le Griffon, in addition the really first ship to become able to sail the great Lakes. Caught in the 1679 storm whilst trading furs between Green Bay as well as Michilimacinac, it had been lost with all hands aboard.[104] Its wreck could have been seen in 2004,[105] however a wreck subsequently discovered in the distinct place has been furthermore claimed within 2014 to be Le Griffon.[106]

The largest and also final main freighter wrecked around the lakes has been your SS Edmund Fitzgerald, which sank upon November 10, 1975, just over 17 miles (30 km) offshore through Whitefish Point on Lake Superior. The Particular largest loss associated with existence in a shipwreck out about the lakes could are already that of the particular Lady Elgin, wrecked in 1860 using the loss of about 400 lives on Lake Michigan. Throughout an incident in a Chicago dock within 1915, the actual SS Eastland rolled over although loading passengers, killing 841.

In August 2007, your Fantastic Lakes Shipwreck Historical Society announced that will it had found the wreckage of Cyprus, the 420-foot (130 m) long, century-old ore carrier. Cyprus sank throughout a Lake Superior storm about October 11, 1907, in your course of its 2nd voyage although hauling iron ore via Superior, Wisconsin, to become able to Buffalo, New York. the entire crew associated with 23 drowned, except one, a guy named Charles Pitz, which floated in your life raft for almost seven hours.[107]

In June 2008, offshore divers throughout Lake Ontario discovered your wreck of the 1780 Royal Navy warship HMS Ontario as for you to what has been described as an “archaeological miracle”.[108] Right now there are no intends to raise your ex since the website can be receiving treatment as a war grave.

In June 2010, your L.R. Doty has been seen in Lake Michigan by simply an exploration diving team led through dive boat Captain Jitka Hanakova from your ex boat your Molly V.[109] the ship sank within October 1898, possibly attempting for you to rescue the small schooner, the Olive Jeanette, throughout a dreadful storm. Right now there aren’t any plans to enhance the ship as it would swiftly deteriorate within open up air.

Still lacking tend to be the 2 last warships to sink inside the Excellent Lakes, the French minesweepers, Inkerman and also Cerisoles, that vanished within Lake Superior during a blizzard inside 1918. 78 lives were lost rendering it your largest loss involving lifestyle inside Lake Superior as well as the greatest unexplained loss involving existence in the Excellent Lakes.

Related articles

List of Fantastic Lakes shipwrecks

Index: Shipwrecks in the Excellent Lakes

Great Storms of the North American Excellent Lakes

Great Lakes Storm involving 1913


The International Joint Commission had been proven in 1909 to assist avoid and also resolve disputes relating to the use and quality of boundary waters, also to advise Canada and in addition the Usa upon questions related to water resources. Concerns more than diversion of Lake drinking water are generally or worry to always be able to both Americans and also Canadians. Several h2o will be diverted through your Chicago River to operate the Illinois Waterway however the flow is limited by treaty. possible schemes regarding bottled drinking water plants as well as diversion in order to dry parts of your continent raise concerns. under the particular U.S. “Water Sources Development Act”,[110] diversion of h2o in the Fantastic Lakes Basin necessitates approval of all eight great Lakes governors via your Excellent Lakes Commission, which in turn rarely occurs. International treaties regulate significant diversions. Inside 1998, the Canadian company Nova Team won approval in the Province of Ontario to always be able to withdraw 158,000,000 U.S. gallons (600,000 m3) of Lake Superior drinking water annually to be able to ship simply by tanker for you to Asian countries. Public outcry forced the organization to always be able to abandon the program prior to it began. Since in which time, the particular eight Excellent Lakes Governors as well as the Premiers involving Ontario and also Quebec possess negotiated the particular Excellent Lakes-Saint Lawrence River Basin Sustainable H2o Sources Agreement[111] as well as the great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin H2o Sources Compact[112] that might avoid the majority of long term diversion proposals and just about all sorts of long-distance ones. The Actual agreements strengthen protection against abusive drinking water withdrawal procedures within the particular great Lakes basin. About December 13, 2005, the Governors along with Premiers signed both involving these agreements, the initial of that is in between all ten jurisdictions. It is somewhat a lot more comprehensive along with protective, however its legal strength features not but been tested in court. the second, the actual Excellent Lakes Compact, continues for you to be approved by the state legislatures of all eight states that border the actual great Lakes also since the U.S. Congress, along with has been signed into law by simply President George W. Bush on three October 2008.[113]

The Fantastic Lakes Restoration Initiative, described as “the largest investment in the Fantastic Lakes inside a couple of decades,”[114] ended up being funded with $475 million inside the U.S. federal government’s Fiscal Yr 2011 budget, and also $300 million within the Fiscal 12 Months 2012 budget. By Means Of the program any coalition involving federal agencies can be generating scholarships to local while stating entities for toxics cleanups, wetlands along with coastline restoration projects, and also invasive species-related projects.

Coast Guard live fire exercises

In 2006, the particular United States Involving America Coast Guard (USCG) proposed an agenda for you to designate 34 areas inside the Fantastic Lakes, a minimal of 5 mi (8 km) offshore, as permanent safety zones with regard to live fire machine gun practice. in August 2006, the strategy ended up being published in the Federal Register. The Particular USCG reserved the proper to hold goal practice whenever weather allowed using a two-hour notice. These kind of firing ranges will be open up to the public when not necessarily throughout use. Inside reaction for you to requests in the public, the particular Coast Guard held the group of public meetings throughout nine U.S. cities to solicit comment. Throughout these conferences many individuals voiced concerns in regards in order to the plan as well as its impact on the environment.[115] on December 18, 2006, the Coast Guard announced its selection in order to withdraw the entire proposal.[116] Officials said they would look into alternative ammunition, modifying your proposed zones and in addition have much more public dialogue before proposing a brand name new plan.[117]

See also

Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909

Eastern Continental Divide

Great Lakes census statistical areas

Great Lakes Megalopolis

Great Lakes Protection Fund

Great Lakes WATER Institute

Great Lakes Waterway

Great Recycling and also Northern Development Canal

List regarding cities on the Fantastic Lakes

List associated with municipalities about the great Lakes

Michigan Islands National Wildlife Refuge


Northern pike

Populated islands of the Excellent Lakes



Sixty Years’ War regarding control of your Fantastic Lakes

Valparaiso Moraine

The great Lakes E-book Project


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^ Riley, S. C.; Roseman, Edward F.; Nichols, S. Jerrine; O’Brien, Timothy P.; Kiley, Courtney S.; Schaeffer, Jeffrey S. (2008). “Deepwater demersal fish neighborhood collapse in Lake Huron” (PDF). Transactions in the American Fisheries Society. 137 (6): 1879-90. doi:10.1577/T07-141.1. Archived from your original (PDF) upon 2013-06-03.

^ Barbiero, R. P.; Barbiero, Richard P.; Balcer, Mary; Rockwell, David C.; Tuchman, Marc L. (2009). “Recent shifts within the crustacean zooplankton neighborhood of Lake Huron”. Canadian Journal involving Fisheries and also Aquatic Sciences. 66 (5): 816-828. doi:10.1139/F09-036.

^ Dave Dempsey (1 April 2004). Upon the particular Brink: the Great Lakes inside the 21st Century. Michigan State College Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-87013-705-1.

^ “Evolution in the Fantastic Lakes water High Quality Agreement”, Paul Muldoon and also Lee Botts, Michigan State University Or College Press, 2005

^ “Recovery associated with Lake Erie Walleye a Good Results Story”.

^ “Our Excellent Lakes” (PDF).

^ “Milestone throughout Waukegan Harbor PCB Cleanup”.

^ “Mercury Spills”. Retrieved 2011-02-19.

^ “Lake Erie Drinking Water Top Quality Past present and Future” (PDF). Retrieved December 4, 2013.

^ any b “14th Biennial report about great Lakes Drinking Water Quality” (PDF).

^ “Solving Region’s Sewage Crisis”.


^ New Concerns about Plastic Pollution inside Fantastic Lakes ‘Garbage Patch’ National Geographic. April 2013.

^ Arthur M. Woodford (1991). Charting your Inland Seas: The History with the U.S. Lake Survey. Wayne State College Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-8143-2499-8.

^ Peter L. Bernstein (2010). Wedding with the Waters: the Erie Canal as well as the Creating of a great Nation. W. W. Norton. p. 349. ISBN 978-0-393-32795-3.

^ Gerald A. Danzer (2011). Illinois: A New History inside Pictures. university of Illinois Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-252-03288-2.

^ Wharton, George. “Great Lakes Fleet Web Page Vessel Feature – Uses Up Harbor”. Boatnerd. Retrieved six August 2010.

^ Therese Gonzalez (2008). Excellent Lakes Naval training Station. Arcadia Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7385-5193-7.

^ Lake Champlain, The Actual Sixth Excellent Lake? – Geography – 03/02/98. (1998-03-06). Retrieved upon 2013-07-12.

^ KATHARINE Q. SEELYE (1998-03-25). “Lakes Are Generally Born Great, 5 Sniff, Consequently Upstart is Ousted – Ny Times”. Retrieved 2013-11-14.

^ Julie Bosman. “G+M: “Creeping up upon unsuspecting shores: the Great Lakes” 28 Jun 2014″. Retrieved 2014-06-29.

^ “”Great Lakes low water levels could price $19B by simply 2050″ 27 Jun 2014”. Retrieved 2014-06-29.

^ Velma I. Grover; Gail Krantzberg (2012). great Lakes: Lessons inside Participatory Governance. CRC Press. p. 334. ISBN 978-1-57808-769-3.

^ “Great Lakes Circle Tour”. 2005-07-05. Retrieved 2011-02-19.

^ Mark L. Thompson (1991). Steamboats & Sailors with the Fantastic Lakes. Wayne State University Or College Press. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-8143-2359-5.

^ Kathryn Strand Koutsky; Linda Koutsky (2006). Minnesota Vacation Days: An Illustrated History. Minnesota Historical Society. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-87351-526-9.

^ Toast of the Town: The Lifestyle Span and Occasions associated with Sunnie Wilson. Wayne State University Or College Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-8143-2696-1.

^ “MS Chi-Cheemaun about Us”. Ontario Ferries. Retrieved 2014-06-29.

^ Stonehouse, Frederick (1985, 1998). Lake Superior’s Shipwreck Coast, p. 267, Avery Colour Studios, Gwinn, Michigan, U.S.A. ISBN 0-932212-43-3

^ Matile, Roger (April 11, 2004) “Has a famed Excellent Lakes mystery been solved?” Ledger-Sentinel, Oswego, Illinois.

^ France claims historic Excellent Lakes wreck, Randy Boswell, Canwest Information Service, February 17, 2009.

^ Explorer says Griffin shipwreck might become found, Connected Press, June 24, 2014.

^ “Century-old shipwreck discovered”. Connected Press. 2007-09-10. Retrieved 2007-12-03.

^ “Divers find 1780 British warship”. BBC News. 2008-06-14. Retrieved 2008-06-15.

^ “L.R. Doty, ship that will sank inside Lake Michigan 112 years ago, located mostly intact close to Milwaukee”. Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, Star Tribune. 2010-06-24. Archived from your original about 2010-06-27. Retrieved 2010-06-28.

^ Federal Statute upon Fantastic Lakes. Drinking Water Diversions. water Sources Development Act in the Wayback Device (archived October 29, 2007).

^ “Great Lakes–St” (PDF). Retrieved 2011-02-19.

^ Agreement. Fantastic Lakes-St Lawrence River Basin Drinking Water Resources. December 13, 2005

^ back to always be able to water Conservation.

^ “Great Lakes Restoration Initiative residence page”.

^ Meg Jones (2006-11-08). “Trading shots upon bullets”. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved 2007-12-02.

^ Kari Lydersen (2006-12-19). “Coast Guard Target-Practice Strategy Misfires”. Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-12-02.

^ Deborah Weisberg (2006-12-24). “Fishing: Coast Guard reloads upon firing range”. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2007-12-02.

Further reading

Peter Annin (2006). the Great Lakes water Wars. Island Press. ISBN 978-1-61091-077-4.

Beltran, R. et al. the Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Source Book. (United States Environmental Protection Agency as well as Government of Canada, 1995, ISBN 0-662-23441-3).

Coon, W.F. as well as R.A. Sheets. Estimate involving Ground H2o in Storage within the great Lakes Basin [Scientific Investigations Document 2006-5180]. Department with the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 2006.

Helen Hornbeck Tanner (1987). Atlas of Excellent Lakes Indian History. University Or College involving Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-2056-0.

Riley, John L. The Particular When as well as Long Term Fantastic Lakes Country: An Ecological History (McGill-Queen’s College Press; 2013) 516 pages; traces environmental change within the region since the past ice age.

Holling, Holling Clancy Paddle to the Sea (ISBN 0-395-15082-5), an illustrated children’s e-book in regards to the Fantastic Lakes in inclusion to their environment. beautiful and also educational.

External links

Wikivoyage has a journey guidebook for Excellent Lakes.

Media associated in order to Fantastic Lakes from Wikimedia Commons

Wikisource-logo.svg “Great Lakes”. New International Encyclopedia. 1905.

Wikisource-logo.svg “How the particular Fantastic Lakes Had Been Built”. Well-known Science Monthly. 49. June 1896.

Great Lakes site of the Canadian Department of the Environment

Great Lakes website with the United States Associated With America Environmental Protection Agency

Binational site associated with USEPA along with Environment Canada pertaining to Fantastic Lakes water Quality

Great Lakes Environmental Study Laboratory site (an arm of the American National Oceanic and also Atmospheric Administration)

Great Lakes information Network, sponsored from the great Lakes Commission, an official American interstate compact agency.

Great Lakes Echo, a publication covering Excellent Lakes environmental issues

Maritime History of the Fantastic Lakes, digital library covering Fantastic Lakes history.

Dynamically up-to-date data

Surface temperatures

Water levels

Water degree forecast


Ship locations

Water levels since 1918




Great Lakes associated with North America

Main lakes






North American Excellent Lakes

Secondary lakes



St. Clair



Bays and


Detroit River

Erie Canal

French River

Georgian Bay

Great Lakes Waterway

Green Bay

Lake George

Lake Kagawong

Lake Manitou

Lake Nicolet

Manitou Passage

Lake Mindemoya

Munuscong Lake

Niagara River

Nipigon River

North Channel

Potagannissing Bay

St. Clair River

Saint Lawrence River

Saint Lawrence Seaway

St. Marys River

Sault Ste. Marie Canal

Soo Locks

Straits associated with Mackinac

Trent-Severn Waterway

Welland Canal


Detroit River

Michigan (state) (in Lake Huron, section of Isle Royale National Park)


Historic geology

Lake Agassiz

Lake Chicago

Lake Maumee

Mackinac Falls

Midcontinent Rift System

Niagara Escarpment

Wisconsin glaciation


Conference associated with Fantastic Lakes and also St. Lawrence Governors as well as Premiers

Great Lakes Commission

Great Lakes Fishery Commission

International Joint Commission

Related topics


Bays of the Excellent Lakes

Great Lakes region

Great Lake ships

Lake-effect snow

Lake Michigan-Huron

Marine protected areas


Quebec City-Windsor Corridor


Great Lakes museum and historic ships

Lake freighter

Tall ships

Great Lakes Places associated with Concern

Great Lakes Treaties

Coordinates: 45°45?N 84°0?W / 45.750°N 84.000°W

Authority control

WorldCat Identities

VIAF: 235462398

GND: 4022167-2

NDL: 00562523

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